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High blood pressure (Hypertension)

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What is Hypertension ? (High Blood Pressure)

Another name for high blood pressure is hypertension (high blood pressure).  You will know that the blood present in our body constantly runs in the veins and through this blood all the organs of the body reach oxygen, glucose, vitamins, minerals etc., necessary for energy and nutrition.  Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood flow on the walls of the veins.  Usually, this blood pressure depends on the speed at which the heart is pumping blood and the number of obstructions the blood is facing in the veins.  According to medical guidelines, blood pressure above 130/80 mmHg is considered as hypertension or high blood pressure.

About 2.5 lakh people die every year in India due to hypertension, whereas this figure is crores of people worldwide.  The special thing is that despite the warnings of the World Health Organization, the number of its patients is increasing continuously due to poor lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits.  Although any part of the body can be affected by high blood pressure, the heart is most at risk.  Chest pain occurs when the heart does not get enough oxygen due to narrowed or constricted blood vessels.  In such a situation, if the flow of blood stops, then heart-attack or cardiac arrest can also occur.

HyperTension Causes : –

According to the reasons, there are two types of hypertension or high blood pressure.

Primary hypertension-  Primary hypertension occurs mostly in young people and there is no specific reason for it, but due to continuous irregular lifestyle, it becomes gradually over time.  The causes of this type of blood pressure are very common such as:

·        Obesity

·       Lack of sleep

·       Getting angry Excessive

·       consumption of non-vegetarian food

·       Stress

·       Oily foods and unhealthy eating habits

Secondary hypertension- Secondary hypertension is that which occurs due to some disease or condition in the body.  Common causes of secondary hypertension are as follows.

·       obstructive sleep apnoea

·       Any kidney disease

·       Adrenal gland tumour

·       Thyroid problem

·       Any defect in the nerves due to genetic reasons

·       Excessive use of contraceptive drugs, excessive use of cold-cold and pain medicines,

·        due to intoxication of alcohol, cigarette, drugs etc.

Symptoms of hypertension (high blood pressure)-

The initial symptoms of high blood pressure include pain in the back of the head and neck.  Many times he ignores this kind of problem, which later becomes a serious problem.  Common symptoms of high blood pressure are:

·       to be tense

·        headache

·        Shortness of breath and sometimes shortness of breath

·        chest pain problem

·        vision changes such as blurred vision

·        bleeding with urine

·        Dizziness

·        fatigue and lethargy

·        nose bleed

·        Insomnia

·       increased heartbeat

Sometimes some people do not have any symptoms related to high blood pressure.  They come to know about this only after the checkup.  Not showing symptoms of high blood pressure can be fatal for the kidney and heart, so if you have a common problem like constant fatigue or lethargy, then definitely get your blood pressure checked.

Types of blood pressure:

Each person’s blood pressure includes two measurements, the systolic and the diastolic.  It is also called the highest reading and the lowest reading.  There are different measurements of whether a muscle is contracting or releasing tension between beats.  Normal blood pressure at rest has the highest reading ie systolic 100 to 140 and diastolic, the lower reading is between 60 and 90.  If a person’s blood pressure remains 140/90 for several days, then he has a problem of high blood pressure.

High BP (High Blood Pressure) Complication

If you are suffering from the problem of high blood pressure then you may have many dangers related to it.  High blood pressure increases the risk of heart attacks and heart diseases.  Apart from this, people suffering from this problem should also get checked for cholesterol and diabetes.  Many other diseases are also likely to occur due to high blood pressure.  High blood pressure can affect the patient’s memory, which is called dementia.  In this, the blood supply to the patient’s brain decreases, and the power of thinking decreases.  High blood pressure can cause the blood vessels in the kidneys to become narrow or thickened.  Due to this, the eyesight starts decreasing, he starts seeing blurred.

Effects of hypertension on the heart:

·       It can harden or thicken the arteries that carry blood to the heart.  thereby reducing their width.  As a result, the heart does not get enough blood and the risk of angina, heart disease and coronary heart disease increases significantly.

·       This can lead to a heart attack.  In fact, people who have had an acute heart attack already have hypertension, which comes on suddenly from stealth, and is then treated.

·       Hypertension causes the heart muscle to become abnormally thick, known as left ventricular hypertrophy.  is called.  Which is a major factor in future death due to cardiovascular disease.

·       High blood pressure puts a lot of pressure on the heart.  Due to this the heart has to work more than normal.  Due to this the size of the heart keeps on increasing and later it starts weakening.  This problem leads to heart failure.

·        Suboptimal high blood pressure is responsible for 50% of cases of endemic heart attacks.  An increase of 20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure or 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure doubles the risk of death from blood pressure.

·       With the right treatment of hypertension, the widespread and serious consequences of this disease can be avoided.

·       Antihypertensive therapy can reduce the incidence of heart attack by 20 to 25 percent.  At the same time, the cases of heart failure can also be reduced by more than 50 percent on average.

Effects of Hypertension in Pregnancy – Gestational Hypertension

If there is a problem of high blood pressure during pregnancy, it is called chronic hypertension or chronic hypertension.  If the problem of high blood pressure occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy, in labor or within 48 hours of delivery, then it is called pregnancy induced hypertension.  During this time, if the blood pressure is 140/90 or more, then both the woman and the child can suffer.  Due to this the patient can reach eclampsia, which is a type of complication in which the woman starts having tremors.

The problem of high blood pressure during pregnancy is seen a lot in women.  This problem becomes severe as the fetus develops.  During pregnancy, if there is a lack of nutritious foods in the diet, then women suffer from anemia.  Due to lack of blood in the body, the development of feet stops.  There is also the possibility of miscarriage due to this.

There are three types of high blood pressure during pregnancy – chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

dangers of high blood pressure in pregnancy

High blood pressure during pregnancy can hamper the growth of the baby.  Vitamins and proteins needed by the child are not available.  It also affects the weight of the unborn child. Hypertension can cause damage to the placenta.  In some cases the placenta separates from the uterus.  Due to this the oxygen supply of the baby gets interrupted.  The woman may also have bleeding. High blood pressure during pregnancy increases the chances of premature delivery.  If a woman has a problem of high blood pressure during pregnancy, then the risk of heart diseases increases after 20 weeks of delivery.  Its complications can be reduced through proper diet and regular checkups during pregnancy.  If you see symptoms of hypertension during this time, contact the doctor immediately.

Hypertension (high blood pressure) test

Measuring blood pressure is very easy.  In most hospitals, your blood pressure and weight are checked before visiting the doctor.  Usually, the correct results are given when the blood pressure is continuously checked.  Only once the reading is high, it cannot be treated.  Nowadays, there are many types of electronic monitors available in the market, with the help of which you can easily check and monitor your blood pressure at home.  Initially, while adjusting the medicines, measure the blood pressure and set a goal.  Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mmHg.  When blood pressure exceeds 130/80 mmHg, it is classified as hypertension or high blood pressure.  Those who have diabetes and high blood pressure, their blood pressure should be 130/80 or less.  If your blood pressure is persistently high, then you should contact the doctor immediately.  In such a situation, the doctor may ask you for these tests in addition to blood pressure.

·       Urine test

·       blood test

·        cholesterol test

·       heart ECG

·       heart or kidney ultrasound

Hypertension (high blood pressure) treatment

Treatment of primary hypertension– Some medicines are given to you to cure primary hypertension, which keeps your blood pressure normal, but at the same time recommend necessary changes in lifestyle because the main cause of primary hypertension is lifestyle irregularity.  In such cases the doctor may give you the following advice.

·       Regular Checkups To keep blood pressure under control and diagnose high blood pressure, it is important that you get your blood pressure checked regularly.  The systolic blood pressure of a healthy adult is between 90 and 120 millimeters of mercury, and the normal diastolic blood pressure is between 60 and 80 millimeters of mercury.

·       Reduce salt intake You should limit salt intake in your diet.  Consuming salt in high amounts increases the risk of heart problems.  If you pay attention to your food and drink in time, then you will not have any kind of problem in future.

·       Control cholesterol: You should not consume such a diet, which can increase the level of cholesterol.  The increase in cholesterol level also increases the level of blood pressure and this also affects your heart.  To keep the heart healthy, fish should be consumed along with seasonal fruits and green vegetables.

·       Reduce anger It is often seen that people who are more angry, their blood pressure level is also high.  Anger has a negative effect on your life and in such a situation you also remain under stress.  You can take the help of meditation and yoga to relieve stress and control blood pressure.

·       Stay away from alcohol, according to experts, consuming alcohol in high amounts also increases your blood pressure.  Consumption of alcohol leads to weight gain, in future it can also be harmful for your heart.  By paying attention to health and lifestyle, you can avoid heart related problems.

·        Regular exercise is beneficial. Regular exercise is beneficial for your health.  In addition, exercise also protects you from high blood pressure and heart disease.  At least 30 minutes of exercise should be done daily.  If you are suffering from any disease or problem, then consult a doctor which type of exercise will be right for you.

·        Control the weight. High blood pressure is the cause of excess weight.  If you are overweight, then you may have a problem of high blood pressure.  That’s why it is important that you keep your weight under control, because of this your blood pressure level will also be controlled.

Treatment of Secondary Hypertension :

Since secondary hypertension is caused due to some problem of the body itself, in such cases doctors give medicines to control blood pressure, but their main focus is to eliminate the disease due to which blood pressure has increased.  .  Sometimes this task becomes difficult because the drugs that are available for the treatment of the disease, the use of those medicines leads to an increase in blood pressure.  Therefore, in such a case, consult a qualified doctor only.  Sometimes, both types of treatment are needed for the treatment of blood pressure, that is, treatment of the disease and also lifestyle changes, in such a situation the doctor can give you proper advice.


Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help you maintain a normal blood pressure.

Doing so becomes even more important if you are at high risk of high blood pressure.  People at high risk should have periodic blood pressure checks.

If you have symptoms of high or low blood pressure, or your at-home test results are beyond the ideal range, seek your doctor’s advice.

They can find out if an existing disease or medicine has caused it.

You will usually need to make some lifestyle changes to be diagnosed with high blood pressure.  Your doctor may also advise you to take medicine.

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